Service & Results.

nyc criminal lawyers over 30 years of experienceWe Know How To Win Cases

Spodek Law Group handles tough cases
nationwide, that demand excellence.

Get Free Consultation

Faced 5+ Years in Prison

People Vs Joseph Amico

Covered by NYDaily News. Las Vegas man accused of threatening a prominent attorney and making vile remarks.

Faced 10+ Years in Prison

People Vs. Anna Sorokin

Covered by New York Times, and other outlets. Fake heiress accused of conning the city’s wealthy, and has an HBO special being made about her.

Faced 3+ Years in Prison

People Vs. Genevieve Sabourin

Accused of stalking Alec Baldwin. The case garnered nationwide attention, with USAToday, NYPost, and other media outlets following it closely.

Faced Potential Charges

Ghislaine Maxwell Juror

Juror who prompted calls for new Ghislaine Maxwell trial turns to lawyer who defended Anna Sorokin.

Why Choose Us

Clients can use our portal to track the status of their case, stay in touch with us, upload documents, and more.

Regardless of the type of situation you're facing, our attorneys are here to help you get quality representation.

We can setup consultations in person, over Zoom, or over the phone to help you. Bottom line, we're here to help you win your case.

Law in the Media

View All

Meet Todd Spodek


The Spodek Law Group understands how delicate high-profile cases can be, and has a strong track record of getting positive outcomes. Our lawyers service a clientele that is nationwide. With offices in both LA and NYC, and cases all across the country - Spodek Law Group is a top tier law firm.

Todd Spodek is a second generation attorney with immense experience. He has many years of experience handling 100’s of tough and hard to win trials. He’s been featured on major news outlets, such as New York Post, Newsweek, Fox 5 New York, South China Morning Post, Insider.com, and many others.

In 2022, Netflix released a series about one of Todd’s clients: Anna Delvey/Anna Sorokin.

Why Clients Choose Spodek Law Group

The reason is simple: clients want white glove service, and lawyers who can win. Every single client who works with the Spodek Law Group is aware that the attorney they hire could drastically change the outcome of their case. Hiring the Spodek Law Group means you’re taking your future seriously. Our lawyers handle cases nationwide, ranging from NYC to LA. Our philosophy is fair and simple: our nyc criminal lawyers only take on clients who we know will benefit from our services.

We’re selective about the clients we work with, and only take on cases we know align with our experience – and where we can make a difference. This is different from other law firms who are not invested in your success nor care about your outcome.

If you have a legal issue, call us for a consultation.
We are available 24/7, to help you with any – and all, challenges you face.

Convey False Information

By Spodek Law Group | February 14, 2023
(Last Updated On: October 18, 2023)

Last Updated on: 18th October 2023, 09:02 am

Conveying False Information: Understanding the Laws and Implications

The spread of false information, intentional or not, can have serious consequences. That’s why there are laws at both the state and federal level prohibiting certain kinds of false statements or hoaxes. Understanding these laws, the motivations behind spreading falsehoods, and the defenses available is important.

The broadest federal law is 18 U.S. Code § 1038. This law makes it illegal to engage in any conduct with intent to convey false or misleading information under circumstances where such information may reasonably be believed and where such information indicates that an activity has taken, is taking, or will take place that would constitute a violation of various other laws. It also prohibits false information regarding death, injury, capture, or disappearance of military personnel.

For example, calling in a fake bomb threat to a school would violate 18 U.S. Code § 1038 because it is false information that could reasonably be believed and cause evacuation and panic. Someone tweeting false information about the outbreak of war could also be charged under this law.

The penalties for violating 18 U.S. Code § 1038 include fines and up to 5 years in prison. If serious bodily injury results, the penalty can be up to 20 years. And if a death results, the person conveying the false information can be sentenced to life in prison.

What Motivates the Spread of Misinformation?

There are a variety of motivations that lead people to spread false information according to research ([1], [2]):

  • Anxiety or nervousness during uncertain events leads people to uncritically share information.
  • Desire to make sense of confusing situations by latching onto unverified rumors.
  • Confirmation bias leads people to share claims that match their existing beliefs.
  • Deliberate intent to manipulate others through disinformation campaigns.
  • Financial incentives to generate engagement through shocking or emotionally provocative misinformation.

Factors that increase the likelihood of someone spreading misinformation include ([3]):

  • Information comes from a source perceived to be credible or authoritative.
  • Misleading claims are accompanied by images, statistics, or other “evidence.”
  • The false content elicits strong emotions like fear, disgust, or outrage.
  • The person has lower levels of analytical thinking and higher faith in intuition.
  • Belief that the ends justify the means when spreading claims aligned with one’s ideology.

However, research also shows that people are much less likely to share information they know is false, especially if it would clearly harm others. This suggests many cases of misinformation spreading come from a lack of awareness rather than malicious intent.

Defenses Against Conveying False Information Charges

Despite the harms misinformation can cause, there are legitimate legal defenses if you are accused of conveying false information ([4], [5]):

  • Free speech: The First Amendment protects even false statements in many cases. However, speech directly inciting lawless action or causing public panic may be prohibited.
  • No intent: Prosecutors must prove you knew the information was false and purposely intended to mislead. Mistakenly sharing false claims would not be criminal.
  • Misinterpretation: Your statements may have been hyperbolic, sarcastic, or misunderstood rather than intentionally deceitful.
  • Diminished capacity: Mental illnesses like schizophrenia that cause detachment from reality could negate intent to deceive.
  • Entrapment: Law enforcement coercing you into spreading false information could constitute entrapment.

The application of defenses depends heavily on the specific context and nature of the alleged false statements. An experienced attorney can advise you on the best defense strategy for your unique situation.

What to Do If Charged with Conveying False Information

If questioned or charged by law enforcement regarding allegedly conveying false information:

  • Politely decline to answer questions without your attorney present.
  • Do not try to argue or justify your actions.
  • Hire an experienced criminal defense lawyer as soon as possible.
  • Follow your lawyer’s advice about responding to allegations.
  • Your lawyer can argue defenses like free speech protections and lack of intent.

Cooperating fully with law enforcement is generally not advisable without first discussing your case with counsel. What seems like an innocent misunderstanding to you could potentially be constructed as an intentional hoax or concealment of the truth.

Free Consultation


I was searching for a law firm with some power to help me deal with a warrant in New York . After 6 days I decided to go with Spodek Law Group. It helped that This law firm is well respected by not only the top law firms in New York , but the DA , Judge as well. I...

~Fonder Brandon

5 Stars
It was my good fortune to retain Spodek Law Group for representation for my legal needs. From the beginning, communication was prompt and thorough. Todd, Kenneth and Alex were the first people I worked with and they all made me, and my company Qumana skincare feel comfortable and confident that the team was going to work hard for me. Everything...

~A G

5 Stars
After meeting with several law firms, I chose the Spodek Law Group not only for their professionalism and experience, but for the personal attention given to me right from the initial consultation. It is important to recognize how crucial having the right legal team is when faced with potentially life altering events that impact families and the lives of loved...

~George Cherubini

Spodek Law Group

White Glove Service

We Provide Superior Service, Excellent Results, At A Level Superior To Other Criminal Defense Law Firms. Regardless Of Where Your Case Is, Nationwide, We Can Help You.
View More

Request Free Consultation

Please fill out the form below to receive a free consultation, we will respond to
your inquiry within 24-hours guaranteed.


85 Broad St 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004


get directions

Los Angeles

611 S Catalina St Suite 222, Los Angeles, CA 90005


get directions


35-37 36th St, 2nd Floor Astoria, NY 11106


get directions


195 Montague St., 14th Floor, Brooklyn, NY 11201


get directions
Call Now!