Service & Results.

nyc criminal lawyers over 30 years of experienceWe Know How To Win Cases

Spodek Law Group handles tough cases
nationwide, that demand excellence.

Get Free Consultation

Faced 5+ Years in Prison

People Vs Joseph Amico

Covered by NYDaily News. Las Vegas man accused of threatening a prominent attorney and making vile remarks.

Faced 10+ Years in Prison

People Vs. Anna Sorokin

Covered by New York Times, and other outlets. Fake heiress accused of conning the city’s wealthy, and has an HBO special being made about her.

Faced 3+ Years in Prison

People Vs. Genevieve Sabourin

Accused of stalking Alec Baldwin. The case garnered nationwide attention, with USAToday, NYPost, and other media outlets following it closely.

Faced Potential Charges

Ghislaine Maxwell Juror

Juror who prompted calls for new Ghislaine Maxwell trial turns to lawyer who defended Anna Sorokin.

Why Choose Us

Clients can use our portal to track the status of their case, stay in touch with us, upload documents, and more.

Regardless of the type of situation you're facing, our attorneys are here to help you get quality representation.

We can setup consultations in person, over Zoom, or over the phone to help you. Bottom line, we're here to help you win your case.

Law in the Media

View All

Meet Todd Spodek


The Spodek Law Group understands how delicate high-profile cases can be, and has a strong track record of getting positive outcomes. Our lawyers service a clientele that is nationwide. With offices in both LA and NYC, and cases all across the country - Spodek Law Group is a top tier law firm.

Todd Spodek is a second generation attorney with immense experience. He has many years of experience handling 100’s of tough and hard to win trials. He’s been featured on major news outlets, such as New York Post, Newsweek, Fox 5 New York, South China Morning Post, Insider.com, and many others.

In 2022, Netflix released a series about one of Todd’s clients: Anna Delvey/Anna Sorokin.

Why Clients Choose Spodek Law Group

The reason is simple: clients want white glove service, and lawyers who can win. Every single client who works with the Spodek Law Group is aware that the attorney they hire could drastically change the outcome of their case. Hiring the Spodek Law Group means you’re taking your future seriously. Our lawyers handle cases nationwide, ranging from NYC to LA. Our philosophy is fair and simple: our nyc criminal lawyers only take on clients who we know will benefit from our services.

We’re selective about the clients we work with, and only take on cases we know align with our experience – and where we can make a difference. This is different from other law firms who are not invested in your success nor care about your outcome.

If you have a legal issue, call us for a consultation.
We are available 24/7, to help you with any – and all, challenges you face.

International Parental Kidnapping Attorney

By Spodek Law Group | October 5, 2021
(Last Updated On: March 19, 2023)

Last Updated on: 19th March 2023, 01:40 am

International parental kidnapping is a serious federal crime that can result in years of incarceration. Since the Hague Conference on Private International Law adopted the Hague Abduction Convention in 1983, 101 countries recognize international treaty agreements to return abducted children to their countries of origin.
When a parent takes a child outside the United States against a court’s custody orders, the searching parent can usually turn to Hague treaty law for a resolution. If the abducting parent takes the child to a country that hasn’t yet acceded to the Hague Convention, the searching parent must rely on foreign law enforcement agencies for a resolution.

How the Law Defines International Parental Kidnapping

According to the U.S. Department of Justice, international parental kidnapping occurs when one parent removes a child from the country with the intent to deny the custodial rights of the child’s other parent. The abducting parent may have legal custodial rights and may simply wish to deprive the other parent of his or her rights.
In addition to the Hague Convention, U.S. parents can rely on laws included in the International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act of 1993 for a domestic resolution. Under federal law, a convicted parental kidnapping offender can face up to three years in prison. If authorities decide to upgrade the charges to aggravated kidnapping, a convicted offender could spend up to 99 years behind bars.

Which Countries Have International Parental Kidnapping Laws?

All Western countries and former Soviet member states have joined the Hague Convention. Several nations in Africa and Asia have also signed the treaty, including South Africa, Turkey, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. According to the DOJ, the Hague Convention has helped recover abducted children in the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Colombia, Japan, Mexico and Australia. Many countries that haven’t yet acceded to the Hague Convention, such as China and India, have domestic laws or treaties designed to restore abducted children to their countries of origin.

When Did International Parental Kidnapping Become a Widespread Problem?

According to Penn State Law School, international parental kidnapping wasn’t a widespread problem until the late 1960s. In 1968, Congress passed the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act to standardize the legal procedure for restoring parents’ custodial rights after a parental kidnapping. Prior to the enactment of the UCCJA, state laws conflicted with one another, enabling parents, after losing a custody battle, to take their children across state lines for more favorable court hearings. Interstate parental kidnapping developed into the more serious crime of international parental kidnapping as international travel became more widely accessible.

How Kidnapping Affects Children and Families

Parental kidnapping can be traumatizing for children. According to Notre Dame Law School, around 350,000 parental kidnappings occur each year. Approximately 10% to 40% of these cases leave the kidnapped children severely traumatized. Moreover, many parental kidnappings result in serious physical or sexual abuse or even death for the kidnapped child. These crimes profoundly affect the families and loved ones of the kidnapped children, as well. The ripple effect can cause societal damage that is impossible to quantify.

What Is the Penalty for a Federal Parental Kidnapping Conviction?

Depending on the severity of the crime, courts may consider a parental kidnapping to be a first- or second-degree felony. If a parental kidnapping involves firearms or violence, authorities will upgrade the charge to aggravated kidnapping, a first-degree felony. A first-degree felony conviction can result in fines of up to $10,000 and a lifetime prison sentence. Authorities may downgrade the charge to a second-degree felony if the abducting parent willingly releases the child in a safe location.

How Can Authorities Recover an Abducted Child From a Foreign Country?

U.S. federal authorities can work with foreign law enforcement agencies to track down abducted children and return them to their country of origin. The search can take months or years to conclude, and many parents choose to hire private investigators to speed up the process. When authorities find an abducted child, the child will typically return home within days or weeks.

The Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section

The Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section of the DOJ offers legal support to parents seeking to reunite with their abducted children. The CEOS isn’t authorized to intervene in child abduction cases, but it can provide legal support for litigation and prosecution once the child returns to the U.S. In addition to providing this support, the CEOS works closely with federal prosecutors and authorities to facilitate the enforcement of Hague Convention guidelines.

Child Custody and Visitation Jurisdiction

Most child custody and visitation disputes fall under state and local jurisdiction. International parental kidnapping is one of the few domestic matters that fall under federal jurisdiction. Additional organizations that deal with international parental kidnapping cases include the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children and the DOJ’s Office for Victims of Crime.

We’re Prepared to Defend Your Rights

Whether you’re facing charges of international parental kidnapping or you’re trying to recover your child, we’re here to help. Our firm offers criminal defense services for clients facing federal charges, and we believe that everyone deserves quality legal counsel.

Free Consultation


I was searching for a law firm with some power to help me deal with a warrant in New York . After 6 days I decided to go with Spodek Law Group. It helped that This law firm is well respected by not only the top law firms in New York , but the DA , Judge as well. I...

~Fonder Brandon

5 Stars
It was my good fortune to retain Spodek Law Group for representation for my legal needs. From the beginning, communication was prompt and thorough. Todd, Kenneth and Alex were the first people I worked with and they all made me feel comfortable and confident that the team was going to work hard for me. Everything was explained and any concerns...

~A G

5 Stars
After meeting with several law firms, I chose the Spodek Law Group not only for their professionalism and experience, but for the personal attention given to me right from the initial consultation. It is important to recognize how crucial having the right legal team is when faced with potentially life altering events that impact families and the lives of loved...

~George Cherubini

Spodek Law Group

White Glove Service

We Provide Superior Service, Excellent Results, At A Level Superior To Other Criminal Defense Law Firms. Regardless Of Where Your Case Is, Nationwide, We Can Help You.
View More

Request Free Consultation

Please fill out the form below to receive a free consultation, we will respond to
your inquiry within 24-hours guaranteed.


85 Broad St 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004


get directions

Los Angeles

611 S Catalina St Suite 222, Los Angeles, CA 90005


get directions


35-37 36th St, 2nd Floor Astoria, NY 11106


get directions


195 Montague St., 14th Floor, Brooklyn, NY 11201


get directions
Call Now!