Federal Conviction Overturned: Understanding the Appeals Process
Having a federal conviction overturned can be a complicated process. This article provides an overview of the federal appeals process and what happens when a conviction gets overturned.
The Federal Court System
The federal court system is made up of three main levels:
- District Courts – These are the federal trial courts where federal cases are first heard. There are 94 district courts across the U.S.
- Courts of Appeals – There are 13 appellate courts that hear appeals from the district courts. They review the cases for legal errors.
- Supreme Court – This is the highest court in the federal system. The Supreme Court hears appeals from decisions made by the Courts of Appeals.
Cases typically start at the district court level, and can be appealed up to the Supreme Court.
Direct Appeal of a Conviction
After a defendant is convicted of a federal crime in district court, they have the right to appeal directly to the Court of Appeals. This appeal can challenge issues with the trial itself, like admitting certain evidence or improper jury instructions.
The appeal is not a new trial, but rather a review of the proceedings in the lower court. The defendant’s lawyer files a brief explaining the legal issues with the conviction. The judges then review the briefs and trial records and make a decision.
There are a few potential outcomes from the direct appeal:
- Affirm the Conviction – The appeals court agrees with the lower court decision and upholds the conviction.
- Reverse the Conviction – The appeals court overturns the conviction completely. This may result in an acquittal or a new trial.
- Remand the Case – The appeals court sends the case back to the district court to fix an error. For example, they may order a new sentencing hearing.
If the Court of Appeals affirms the conviction, the defendant can request an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. However, the Supreme Court accepts very few cases each year.
In addition to direct appeals based on issues at trial, defendants can also make “collateral attacks” on their conviction through post-conviction petitions. These focus on constitutional violations related to the conviction and sentencing.
Common post-conviction appeals include:
- Ineffective assistance of counsel – The defense lawyer did not effectively represent the defendant.
- Prosecutorial misconduct – The prosecution behaved improperly, like hiding exculpatory evidence.
- Actual innocence – There is new evidence showing the defendant is factually innocent.
Post-conviction petitions start at the district court level where the conviction occurred. If denied by the district court, they can be appealed up through the court system like a normal case.
These types of appeals are more limited than direct appeals of the conviction. There are strict deadlines and higher burdens of proof. But they are an important avenue for overturning wrongful convictions.
Federal Habeas Corpus
After completing state appeals, state prisoners can file a federal habeas corpus petition. This involves federal courts reviewing constitutional issues from a state court conviction.
The petition starts at the U.S. District Court. If denied, the defendant can request permission to appeal from the Court of Appeals and then the Supreme Court. Federal courts give strong deference to state court decisions.
What Happens After a Conviction is Overturned?
If an appeals court overturns a federal conviction, there are a few possible next steps:
- New Trial – Often the appeals court will order a new trial in the district court. The prosecutor can choose to retry the case.
- Acquittal – In rare cases, the appeals court may order an acquittal rather than a new trial. This bars reprosecution.
- Sentencing Review – The appeals court might affirm the conviction but remand for resentencing on an error.
- Dismissal – For some reversals, like prosecutorial misconduct, the appeals court may order the charges dismissed.
The appeals court decision will outline the specific instructions on what should happen next in the district court.
- Direct appeal of a federal conviction focuses on procedural and legal errors at trial, while post-conviction petitions can raise additional constitutional issues.
- Most appeals lead to a new trial if the conviction is overturned, but some cases get acquittals or dismissals.
- The appeals process can be lengthy and complex, often taking years. Having an experienced appeals lawyer is crucial.
- Overturning a conviction on appeal is difficult – most are affirmed. But appeals are critical for remedying mistakes that led to wrongful convictions.
The Appeals Process Step-By-Step
Here is a step-by-step overview of the complete federal criminal appeals process:
- Conviction in District Court – A jury or judge convicts the defendant at the trial level.
- Notice of Appeal Filed – Within 14 days, the defense files a notice of appeal to the Court of Appeals. This starts the direct appeal of the conviction.
- Record Transferred – The trial court sends the record of transcripts and filings to the appeals court.
- Appellant Brief Filed – The defense lawyer files a detailed brief explaining the legal errors made at trial. This asks the appeals court to overturn the conviction.
- Appellee Brief Filed – The prosecution gets to file a response brief defending the conviction and sentence.
- Oral Arguments (Optional) – Most appeals are decided on briefs alone. But sometimes the court hears short oral arguments from each side.
- Appeals Court Decision – The judges issue a written decision on the appeal – affirming, reversing, or remanding.
- Supreme Court Petition (Optional) – The losing party can ask the Supreme Court to review the appeal. Very few petitions are granted.
- Post-Conviction Appeals – The defendant can file petitions collaterally attacking the conviction and sentence through other appeals.
- Federal Habeas Corpus Petition – For state convictions, habeas corpus petitions can raise federal constitutional violations.
- New Trial or Other Outcome – If successful, the appeals court will order a new trial, acquittal, resentencing, or dismissal based on the circumstances.