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Last Updated on: 27th July 2023, 04:34 pm
In the past we’ve expounded on New York penal laws that have to do with the physical world. But as things have gone increasingly digital, so too have a lot of our crimes migrated to this new realm. So in today’s post we’re going to talk a little bit about computer trespass and tampering laws, starting with some definitions of terms.
Wherever there’s proof that someone used a computer in a way that bypasses or defrauds a security measure, this is evidence that the person used or accessed this computer without prior authorization.
First on the list of charges we have unauthorized use of a computer. You’re guilty of this one when you knowingly use a computer without prior authorization. This is a class A misdemeanor.
Computer trespass is when you knowingly use a computer without authorization and do this with the intent to commit a felony or knowingly gain access to computer material. This one is a bit more serious, and is a class E felony.
Computer tampering in the fourth degree is when you use a computer without authorization and intentionally alter or destroy data or someone else’s program. This crime is charged as a class A misdemeanor.
This crime is when you commit the previous crime we mentioned and then go ahead and do this with the intent to commit a felony, or if you’ve been previously convicted of any crime under this article, or if you intentionally alter or destroy some computer material. Computer tampering in the third degree is a class E felony.
Now to be guilty of this one, you’ll have to have committed computer tampering in the fourth degree and then intentionally alter or destroy data in a total amount of more than $3,000, or else computer material that holds medical records, and due to this destruction one of these people suffers an injury. This is considered a class D felony.
Computer tampering in the first degree is when you commit the crime of computer tampering in the fourth degree and then intentionally alter or destroy data or a computer program in a way that causes damages of more than $50,000. This is considered a class C felony.
Now for this particular crime, you’d have to copy or reproduce computer material that has medical records on it without the permission to do so. This crime is considered a class B misdemeanor.
Same thing here, but some distinctions are that this would include any data that deprives its owner of some sort of benefit in excess of $2,500, or any data or program with an attempt to commit a felony. This is considered a class E felony.
This crime involves knowingly possessing a copy or reproduction of data or a program without having the right to do so. This crime is charged as a class E felony.
Before we get into the charges for this one, let’s look at one of the terms.
Now, to be guilty of operating an unlawful electronic sweepstakes, you’d have to knowingly place a device to conduct a sweepstakes with the use of a display, or promote a sweepstakes that’s conducted via an entertaining display. Nothing in this section is considered illegal when it’s operated by the New York state lottery for education. This particular crime is charged as a class E felony.
Lastly we’ve got offenses involving computers, and the defenses of these. It’s considered a legitimate defense if you had reason to believe that you had authorized use of the computer in question, or that you had reason to believe you had the right to alter computer data or programs, or if you had reason to believe that you had the right to copy or reproduce computer data or a computer program.
See? That was relatively painless. While lawyers and their associates have to contend with mountains of legalese, we don’t believe you should have to.
In today’s ever-evolving digital age, crime has transitioned along with our technology. Hence, it is becoming increasingly important to understand computer trespass and tampering laws. This comprehensive guide will help you navigate through various definitions of terms, offenses related to computers, and their respective penalties.
Computer: A device that can automatically perform tasks using technology, including storing and accessing data later.
Computer Program: An ordered set of data representing coded instructions that allow the computer to process data and perform operations.
Computer Data: Considered property, it represents information, facts, concepts, or other types of knowledge processed in a computer.
If someone bypasses or defrauds a security measure on a computer, this is evidence that they used or accessed the computer without prior authorization.
Charged as a class A misdemeanor, individuals are guilty of unauthorized use of a computer when they knowingly use a computer without prior permission.
If one knowingly uses a computer without authorization intending to commit a felony or knowingly gains access to computer material, they will be charged with a class E felony for computer trespass.
When a person uses a computer without permission and intentionally alters or destroys data or someone else’s program, they are committing computer tampering in the fourth degree, which is charged as a class A misdemeanor.
Individuals committing computer tampering in the fourth degree with the intent to commit a felony, having prior convictions, or intentionally altering or destroying computer material will face a class E felony charge.
For those who commit computer tampering in the fourth degree and alter or destroy data worth more than $3,000 or computer material containing medical records leading to injury will be charged with a class D felony.
This crime, charged as a class C felony, occurs when an individual commits computer tampering in the fourth degree and intentionally alters or destroys data or a computer program, causing damages exceeding $50,000.
Individuals who copy or reproduce computer material containing medical records without permission will face a class B misdemeanor charge.
A class E felony charge is given when an individual unlawfully duplicates computer data that deprives the owner of benefits worth over $2,500 or any data or program to commit a felony.
Knowingly possessing a copy or reproduction of data or a program without having the right to do so is charged as a class E felony.
First, let’s define one term:
Electronic Machine or Device: An electronically operated machine owned by a sweepstakes sponsor and used by entrants in the sweepstakes.
To be guilty of operating an unlawful electronic sweepstakes (class E felony), one must knowingly place a device to conduct a sweepstakes using a display or promote a sweepstakes conducted via an entertaining display, excluding operations by the New York state lottery for education.
Legitimate defenses include having reason to believe that:
1. Authorized use of the computer in question was granted.
2. The right to alter computer data or programs was given.
3. The right to copy or reproduce computer data or a computer program was permitted.
Embrace your journey into understanding the world of cybercrime laws, as it is quite the thrilling and captivating experience. As technology continues to advance, so too will our need to stay informed about these regulations to protect ourselves and our digital assets.
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